CPLE occurs when higher than normal amounts of protein leak into the intestinal tract and are lost through the stool. Although the dog's body tries to make up for this loss by producing more proteins like albumin, it can't keep up with the demand. As a result, the dog has low levels of albumin (hypoalbuminemia) and sometimes low levels of globulin (hypoglobulinemia).
To better understand CPLE, it is important to know the way the disease develops. One way that heart conditions are thought to lead to CPLE is due to cardiac insufficiency. Basically, a heart condition prevents the heart from pumping sufficient blood, and this low blood supply affects the intestines. The reduced circulation causes an increased permeability in the intestinal lining, which allows proteins from throughout the body to enter into the intestines and be excreted in the fecal matter .
Traditional Treatments for CPLE
Because CPLE develops as a secondary condition to another disease, the best treatment method is to combat the underlying condition. For many veterinarians faced with the combination of congestive heart failure and CPLE, the obvious answer seems to be diuretics like Lasix.
Diuretics like Lasix prevent the kidneys from retaining sodium and potassium in order to increase urine output. By stopping sodium and potassium retention, the kidneys get rid of any excess fluid that has accumulated in the dog's body. It also dilates the blood vessels so blood can flow more freely through the body, improving circulation. Despite its usefulness, though, diuretics like Lasix are extremely potent and can be dangerous. If not taken in the correct amounts they can lead to extreme dehydration, electrolyte depletion and even kidney problems.
So why risk giving your dog extremely strong and potentially dangerous diuretics when they don't even target the underlying mechanisms of CPLE? Instead, many dog owners have found that Neprofin provides a better, safer alternative.
Neprofin Treats CPLE in Dogs
Neprofin is a combination of powerful anti-inflammatory enzymes and antioxidants that digest circulatory proteins and reduce swelling. This powerful formula was specifically formulated for dogs and performance race animals, like thoroughbred race horses. This blend of natural ingredients works to not only relieve the hazardous symptoms of CPLE but also target the underlying disease mechanisms, restoring your dog's good health.
Neprofin Reduces Edema and Inflammation
Obviously one of the most devastating features of CPLE is the accumulation of fluid in your dog's body (edema). In the short term, Neprofin is able to reduce edema because of the potent action of bromelain and serrapeptase.
Bromelain is a protein-dissolving enzyme extracted from the flesh and stem of the pineapple plant. It has been shown in a number of studies to prevent edema as well as reduce any swelling and fluid accumulation that has already occurred . In one clinical study, oral bromelain use was shown to inhibit edema formation by more than 40% , while another study showed the oral bromelain administration reduced existing edema by 50% for up to 12 hours after supplementation . Based on these and other clinical results, experts have concluded that bromelain increases tissue permeability by breaking down fibrin and promoting the reabsorption of edema fluid into the blood circulation .
Serrapeptase is another proteolytic (protein-dissolving) enzyme found in Neprofin. In a number of studies conducted in humans, serrapeptase has been shown to have anti-edemic properties, which means it reduces fluid accumulation and swelling [9,10]. These studies also showed that serrapeptase reduces inflammation. Reducing inflammation is extremely important in dogs with CPLE because inflammation can contribute to the progression of the disease and lead to other serious complications. Many of Neprofin's other enzymes can also act as powerful anti-inflammatories, including alma, papain, rutin and proteases [11-18].
Neprofin Improves Cardiovascular Health
Since CPLE can be caused by heart problems, this is another area Neprofin addresses. Two of the most common risk factors for heart disease are high plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Lipase is an enzyme that breaks down fat in all areas of the body, including the arteries. While lipase is naturally produced by the body, many lifestyle, genetic and other health factors can drastically reduce its production. However, oral lipase supplementation has been shown to significantly reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both animals and humans [19,20].
Narrowing of the arteries that supply blood to the heart is another common factor in cardiac conditions. In both humans and animals, the artery walls become thicker than normal due to a buildup of atherosclerotic plaque. This plaque buildup reduces blood circulation and increases blood pressure because there is less space for the blood to flow through the blood vessels. Oral bromelain may be able to prevent this for happening, though, by cleaning up atherosclerotic plaque before serious cardiac issues occur. In a study conducted in rabbits, bromelain broke down any arteriosclerotic plaque that had accumulated in the animals' aortas .
Neprofin Prevents Deadly Blood Clots
A common, and often fatal, complication of CPLE in dogs is the development of pulmonary thromboemboli–blood clots in the lungs. Research has shown that blood clots are largely composed of a fibrin protein mesh holding together smaller amounts of various fats and cholesterol. Not only is Neprofin's combination of enzymes able to stop clots from forming, but they can also destroy clots that have already formed.
One mechanism thought to be involved in CPLE-related clot formation is increased platelet clumping[3,22]. Bromelain, however, has been shown to inhibitplatelet clumping and clot formation in both humans and animals [23,24]. In one study conducted in animals, oral bromelain administration significantly decreased clot formation in both arteries and veins .
Once clots have already formed, a number of Neprofin's enzymes work synergistically to literally dissolve the clot. Both serrapeptase and bromelain are fibrinolytic enzymes, which means they are able to digest the fibrin meshwork holding a clot together [10,26,27]. Once this occurs, the enzyme lipase is able to break down the fats and cholesterol that make up the rest of the clot, rendering all of these chemical components harmless to the health of the animal.
Neprofin – Powerful Yet Gentle Relief
CPLE can cause dangerous health effects and even death. However, clinical studies have shown that the natural enzymes found in Neprofin have the potential to reduce the symptoms and fatal complications of CPLE while improving the causes of the disease. Best of all, Neprofin gives dogs real relief from CPLE with no risk of major side effects like those seen with typical medications.
1) O’Brien PJ, Lumsden JH. The cytologic examination of body cavity fluids. Semin Vet Med Surg. 1988;3:140-156.
2) Odze RD, Goldblum JR. Surgical pathology of the GI tract, liver, billiary tract, and pancreas. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009: 181.
3) Marks SL. Diagnosis and management of protein-losing enteropathies. Proceedings of the WSAVA Congress, Sydney, Australia, 2007.
4) Umar SB, DiBaise JK. Protein-losing enteropathy: case illustrations and clinical review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105:43-49.
5) Maurer HR. Bromelain: biochemistry, pharmacology and medical use. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001;58:1234-1245.
6) Netti C, Bandi GL, Pecile A. Antiinflammatory action of proteolytic enzymes administered orally compared with antiphlogistic compounds. Il Pharmaco. 1972;27:453-466.
7) Uhlig G, Seifert I. Die Wirkung proteolytischer Enzyme auf das posttraumatische Syndrom. Fortschritte der Medizin. 1981;15:554-556.
8) Smyth RD, Brennan R, Martin GJ. Systemic biochemical changes following the oral administration of a proteolytic enzyme, bromelain. Arch Int Pharmacodyn. 1962;136:230-236.
9) Tachibana M, Mizukoshi O, Harada Y, et al. A multi-centre, double-blind study of serrapeptase versus placebo in post-antrotomy buccal swelling. Pharmatherapeutica. 1984;3:526-530.
10) Mazzone A, Catalani M, Costanzo M, et al. Evaluation of Serratia peptidase in acute or chronic inflammation of otorhinolaryngology pathology: a multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial versus placebo. J Int Med Res. 1990;18:379-388.
11) Asmawi MZ, Kankaanranta H, Moilanen E, Vapaatalo H. Anti-inflammatory activities of Emblica officinalis Gaertn leaf extracts. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1993;45:581-584.
12) Ihantola-Vormisto A, Summanen J, Kankaanranta H, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica. Planta Med. 1997;63:518-524.
13) Lambertini E, Lampronti I, Penolazzi L, et al. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene in breast cancer cells treated with transcription factor decoy is modulated by Bangladeshi natural plant extracts. Oncol Res. 2005;15(2):69-79.
14) Leipner J, Iten F, Saller R. Therapy with proteolytic enzymes in rheumatic disorders. BioDrugs. 2001;15(12):779-789.
15) Leipner J, Saller R. Systemic enzyme therapy in oncology: effect and mode of action. Drugs. 2000;59(4):769-780.
16) Hale LP, Greer PK, Sempowski GD. Bromelain treatment alters leukocyte expression of cell surface molecules involved in cellular adhesion and activation. Clin Immunol. 2002;104:183-190.
17) Selezneva AA, Bol’shakova MD. Proteolytic complex from Aspergillus terricola. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 1986;22(1):3-11.
18) Selezneva AA, Babenko GA, Bol’shakova MD, Rozhanskaia TI, Margolina NA. Preparative isolation of terrilytin components and study of their enzymatic properties. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 1976;12(3):416-420.
19) Du H, Schiavi S, Levine M, Mishra J, Heur M, Grabowski GA. Enzyme therapy for lysosomal acid lipase deficiency in the mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10(16):1639-1648.
20) Hall DA, Zajac AR, Cox R, Spanswick J. The effect of enzyme therapy on plasma lipid levels in the elderly. Atherosclerosis. 1982;43(2):209-215.
21) American Heart Association, Official Report, Mat 1972. Chen JR. In vivo and in vitro studies of the effect of bromelain on cholesterol-protein binding. Dissert. Abstr B. 1975;35(2 Pt) 6013, Ord. No. 75-13, 735.
22) Tilley LP. Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiology. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.
23) Juhasz B, Thirunavukkarasu M, Pant R, et al. Bromelain induces cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury through Akt/FOXO pathway in rat myocardium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294(3):H1365-1370.
24) Heinicke RM, van der Wal L, Yokoyama M. Effect of bromelain on human platelet aggregation. Experientia. 1972;28:844-845.
25) Metzig C, Grabowska E, Eckert K, Rehse K, Maurer HR. Bromelain proteases reduce human platelet aggregation in vitro, adhesion to bovine endothelial cells and thrombus formation in rat vessels in vivo. In vivo. 1999;13:7-12.
26) Pirotta F, de Giuli-Morghen C. Bromelain: antiinflammatory and serum fibrinolytic activity after oral administration in the rat. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1978;4:1-20.
27) Ako H, Cheung AHS, Matsuura PK. Isolation of a fibrinolysis enzyme activator from commercial bromelain. Arch Int Pharmacodyn. 1981;254:157-167.